Many believe the Taliban to be a spent force and they argue that the Taliban are not united as they were, prior to the exposing of the death of Mullah Omar. It is true there have been rivalries and infighting within the Taliban leadership. The Taliban are after all a tribal people their movement is shaped by the tribal mind-set. Regardless of the rivalries and infighting, the Taliban are still represent one body. Afghanistan's neighbours support their own brand of Taliban and foreign support has been causing competition within their factions as they compete for resources.
Afghanistan has been an unstable state for a considerable period of time and has little experience of centralised government, the Monarchy previously ruling Afghanistan under the Jirga system
Afghanistan's problems, to some extent, are not created by the Afghanis themselves but are the result of long term foreign, outside interference by the superpowers and its neighbours. As a war-torn country, Afghanistan has many problems but the major two are exceptional,
Internal ethnic/tribal mistrust and foreign interference;
1) Internal problems
The constitution although recognising Afghanistan as a multi-ethnic state fails to address the critical demand for power sharing and this has caused low level fighting between ethnic groups for control of power in Kabul. There is a level of trust deficit between ethnic groups along with a mistrust between tribes within a given ethnic group for variety of reasons.
The Afghani Internal problems’ could be greatly alleviated by dialogue, constitutional reform and power sharing. Although there exists environment of mistrust in Afghanistan, the Afghan ethnic groups do not hate each other.
2- Outside interference is the problem the Afghans alone cannot resolve and needs The United Nations and western powers help to solve.
Pakistan,Pakistan is the worldwide Capital of Jihadism and is so far the only country benefiting from extremism and the war against it. The Pakistanis have promoted, trained and housed Jihadi groups as well as individuals. Anti-Afghan forces within Pakistan have long claimed the right to meddle with Afghan sovereign and is determined to control Afghanistan through Taliban. The United States has the power to this direct interference by in Afghanistan.
Although the Iranians have supported the Taliban for many reasons, their overriding priority is to hurt the and divert attention from the USA.
Following the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution, The Supreme Leader established two international Islamic organisations to spread Islamic revolution in the world. One a Shiite and the other, a Sunni.
Ahel-e-Beait supports Shiite terrorism worldwide.
And Etihad-e-Muslimeen an organisation support Sunni terrorists worldwide.
Both working directly under the supreme leader Ali Khamenei and both organisations managed by Al-Quads.
Numbers of well-known top Sunni scholars, both Pakistani and Afghan are the members of Etihad-e-Muslimeen with Iran supporting the Taliban through these organisations including directly recruiting Afghans to spread terror in Afghan and Middle East.
From the Iranians point of view it makes sense for them to support the Taliban. Iranians hate the Sunni Taliban whilst they and the Jihadi groups hate the American and their enlighten values. Iran has been supporting Al-Qaida not for the love of their ideology but for the hatred Al-Qaida shares with them against America.
Western policy makers have incorrectly developed ideas that Shiite Iran does not support Sunni Taliban because of their level hate toward each other as well as ideological differences.
Iranian support of the Taliban is tactical prolonging the war in Afghanistan engaging the American administration both there, in Syria and other places to buy much needed time for their nuclear bomb. The Iranian believe they can achieve actual nuclear weapon capability or at worst a credible threat of it thereby becoming masters of the Middle East.
Russian supports its own brand of Taliban. Not all Taliban fight for their ideology and have evolved as mercenaries’ with guns for hire.
Afghanistan has been fertile ground for the hire men and guns, the Russians and Iranians knowing it better than anyone else.
Russian support will increase Taliban operational capabilities with both Russian and Iran having a common goal in the Middle East. Afghanistan is one place they can fight the American and win.
Afghanistan's problems to some extent, are not created internally but are the result of long term foreign interference by superpowers and its neighbours.
No matter how much money and troops one pours in into Afghanistan, change will not come as long as Afghanistan’s neighbours are free to finance, train, house and motivate the Taliban to fight and kill Afghan.
Mehrab, Sarjov a Baluch activist based in London. A leading expert in Baluchistan and the Middle East.